The Red Monastery is located 21 kilometres west of Sohag province. It is considered one of the most important monasteries established during Christianity’s early history. Because of the red bricks that make up most of its masonry, it is known as the Red Monastery. White limestone was employed in the building’s construction as well as were several pink and black granite columns.
The monastery was founded by Saint Bishoy in the beginning of the fourth century AD, but suffered of two fires, the first was during the Roman Period, and the second was as a result of Berber attacks.
All that remains of the Red Monastery is its church and surrounding fortification walls to the south. Remains of a structure north of the church also survived and are thought to belong to an industrial area.
The main church is composed of a long rectangular space composed of three wings. The middle wing is the largest of the three. A church known as the “Church of the Virgin Mary” is attached to its south-west corner. On its eastern end, the monastery’s church terminates in a tripartite structure decorated with murals done with tempera paint depicting Biblical scenes that include Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, the Four Gospels, and the Apostles.
The fort occupies the area south of the church, to which its structures are attached. It likely dates to the reign of Empress Helena.
It is a roughly square building that consists of four floors, the ground and first floors of baked bricks, and the top two of simple sun-dried mud brick. The fort itself contains several units that allowed the monks to reside in it for long stretches of time, including a church, cells, a storage room, and a water source.