The Mosque of Muhammad Ali is located inside the Citadel of Salah al‑Din al‑Ayyubi (Saladin) in Cairo. It was built by Muhammad Ali Pasha (1220–1264 AH/1805–1848 AD), the founder of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty (1220–1372 AH/1805–1953 AD), on the site of Mamluk palaces. He had these demolished to make room for his new building, which is also known as the "Alabaster Mosque", in reference to its marble paneling on its interior and exterior walls. The mosque’s twin minarets are the highest in all of Egypt, each reaching a height of 84 meters.
The outer open court contains a copper clock tower, which was gifted to Muhammad Ali Pasha by Louis Philippe of France in 1262 AH/1845 AD. Muhammad Ali Pasha reciprocated the gesture with an obelisk of Ramesses II’s (c.1279–1213 BC) that stood in front of Luxor Temple. Today, it stands in the Place de la Concorde Square, Paris.
Limestone is the mosque’s main building material. Its square plan consists of a central dome supported by four half‑domes, with an additional four smaller domes in the corners of the building. There are two minbars (pulpits) inside the mosque. The original of the two is made of wood decorated in green. The other was a later addition made of marble.
The beautiful white marble mausoleum of Muhammad Ali Pasha is situated in the southwestern corner of the mosque, to the right of the entrance.