The Mosque and Madrasa of Sultan Hasan is one of the largest and architecturally exquisite mosques in all of Egypt. It was commissioned by the Mamluk sultan Hasan ibn al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun sometime between 757 AH/1356 AD and 764 AH/1362 AD, and is located at the end of Muhammad Ali Street, opposite its nineteenth century neighbor al-Rifa’i mosque in Salah al-Din Square.
The mosque consists of an open courtyard with fountain in its centre. The courtyard is surrounded by four iwans (a rectangular space that is open on one side). Doorways at the four corners of the courtyard allow access into four madrasas, educational institutions, where the four Sunni schools of Islamic jurisprudence were taught. Each consists of a court and iwan, in addition to the rooms of the students and annexed service units. The mosque has two minarets built in the Mamluk style.
Its proximity to the citadel ultimately resulted in its use as a fort by enemies several times throughout its history, as it was used as a platform to launch attacks on the citadel.
Like most Islamic monuments in Cairo, this one has also undergone several phases of reconstruction, up until the twentieth century. The mosque and madrasa are distinguished with the ornate domes, stone and plaster carved decorations, as well as the marble works of the mihrab.