The Ummayad Caliphate was founded by Mu’awiyya ibn Abi Sufyan. Umayyad rule continued for almost a century. The empire expanded widely, reaching Europe and the edges of Asia. The decline of the caliphate, however, took place during the reign of Hisham Ibn ‘Abd al-Malik. Damascus was the centre of rule, and Egypt was one of its subordinate territories. Amr ibn al-‘as was appointed the governor of Egypt for the second time by Mu’awiya ibn Abi Sufyan (38-43 AH), and he is considered the first ruler of Egypt during this period.