The Circassian Mamluks founded their state in 784 AH/ 1382 AD by Sayf al-Din Barquq. Their roots return to the reign of al-Mansur Qalawun, who excessively used Circassian Mamluks in his military. This regiment was loyal to him and his decedents. Upon becoming military general, one of these Circassian Mamluks, Barquq, became the most important and powerful men of the state. His ascension to the throne marks the beginning of the Circassian Mamluk dynasty. They were also called the Burji (deriving from “tower) Mamluks, since they occupied the citadel and its towers. Egypt witnessed an architectural and artistic progress during the Mamluks time although it was an unstable period. The Circassian Mamluks ruled Egypt for about 135 years, with 23 alternating sultans. The defeat of Sultan Tuman Bey heralded the beginning of the Ottoman period.