The mosque of Sultan al‑Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun, in the Citadel of Salah al‑Din al‑Ayyubi (Saladin) in Cairo, was the royal mosque during the Mamluk Period (792–922 AH/1250–1517 AD). It is located in the Citadel’s southern section. The Mamluk sultan, al‑Nasir Muhammad, over the course of his forty‑two‑year reign that was interrupted three times, built more monuments than any other ruler of the Mamluk ruler. He decreed that this mosque be built in 718 AH/1318 AD. After it was completed, however, he demolished it and rebuilt it in 735 AH/1335 AD. This mosque was highly cherished by subsequent Mamluk sultans, and used by the Mamluk occupants of the Citadel.
The mosque is among the most prominent monuments within the Citadel due to its unique style that merges many architectural traditions. The tops of its two minarets and dome were once covered in green tiles, and are influenced by an eastern Islamic style. The inside of the dome is decorated with a bar of Quranic verses, the titles of Sultan al‑Nasir Muhammad, and the date of the building of the second mosque. The ceiling of the mosque is decorated with beautiful geometric shapes. The ornate minbar (pulpit) is made of wood, inlaid with ivory and mother‑of‑pearl, and inscribed with the name of King Farouk.
The mosque was used as storage and prison during the British occupation of 1882 AD. This led to its destruction, but it was subsequently restored in 1948 AD.