Dahshur was the southern part of the cemetery of Memphis, the capital of ancient Egypt. Pyramids of the kings of the Old and Middle Kingdoms were erected on this hill. The first king of the 4th Dynasty Sneferu chose the rocky plateau of Dahshur to establish his first pyramid to compete with the pyramid of King Djoser in Saqqara but failed to complete it. This first attempt turned into a broken shape, but he built a complete pyramid at a distance from it, called the Red Pyramid. Nearby, the pyramids dating to the Middle Kingdom, starting from the pyramid of King Amenemhat II, stand although in a bad state. The pyramid of King Senwosret III is surrounded by the tombs of the princesses Sit-Hathor and Ment.
As for the Black Pyramid of King Amenemhat III, it is also in poor condition of conservation. Despite the erosion of its stones, it is still standing at a distance from the pyramid of Sneferu. The stone pyramidion, the tip of the pyramid, is on display at the Egyptian Museum. Several other pyramids of the 13th Dynasty were built at Dahshur.